In recent years, metabolomics has become a necessary tool for understanding the impact of external and pathological factors on the operation of biological systems. The first reports of metabolomics date back to the 1970s, however, the area only began to develop dynamically at the beginning of this century and has proved effective only during the present decade. The five primary tools used in this form of analysis are NMR spectrometry, HPLC, TLC-UV, GC-MS and LC-MS/MS, with MS as the most universal approach, particularly when used together with chromatographic separation and NMR. Diabetes mellitus type 2 (T2DM) is a rapidly growing problem with global consequences. The metabolomic approach has been extensively applied to examining T2DM, insulin resistance and obesity, not only to assess the development of the disease, but also to discover its potential biomarkers. The presented review summarizes current studies on lipidomic and proteomic profiles in the context of different types of diabetes mellitus disease (T1DM, T2DM and GDM), as determined by chromatography-coupled mass spectrometry.