On the use of a Euclidean norm function for the estimation of local dynamic stability from 3D kinematics using time-delayed Lyapunov analyses

Med Eng Phys. 2016 Oct;38(10):1139-45. doi: 10.1016/j.medengphy.2016.07.001. Epub 2016 Jul 22.


Several different state-space reconstruction methods have been employed to assess the local dynamic stability (LDS) of a 3D kinematic system. One common method is to use a Euclidean norm (N) transformation of three orthogonal x, y, and z time-series' followed by the calculation of the maximum finite-time Lyapunov exponent (λmax) from the resultant N waveform (using a time-delayed state space reconstruction technique). By essentially acting as a weighted average, N has been suggested to account for simultaneous expansion and contraction along separate degrees of freedom within a 3D system (e.g. the coupling of dynamic movements between orthogonal planes). However, when estimating LDS using N, non-linear transformations inherent within the calculation of N should be accounted for. Results demonstrate that the use of N on 3D time-series data with arbitrary magnitudes of relative bias and zero-crossings cause the introduction of error in estimates of λmax obtained through N. To develop a standard for the analysis of 3D dynamic kinematic waveforms, we suggest that all dimensions of a 3D signal be independently shifted to avoid the incidence of zero-crossings prior to the calculation of N and subsequent estimation of LDS through the use of λmax.

Keywords: Euclidean norm; Kinematics; Local dynamic stability; Lyapunov exponent; New method; Non-linear dynamics.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Biomechanical Phenomena
  • Mechanical Phenomena*
  • Statistics as Topic / methods*