Blood pressure burden and outcome in warfarin-related intracerebral hemorrhage

Int J Stroke. 2016 Oct;11(8):898-909. doi: 10.1177/1747493016658300. Epub 2016 Jul 28.


Background and purpose Blood pressure reduction is a promising intervention for acute intracerebral hemorrhage, but clinical trials of this treatment often exclude those with anticoagulant-associated intracerebral hemorrhage, leaving it unclear whether this population might benefit. We examined whether persistently elevated blood pressure values (blood pressure burden) over the first 24 h are associated with hematoma expansion and mortality in anticoagulant-associated intracerebral hemorrhage. Methods We retrospectively identified consecutive patients with primary anticoagulant-associated intracerebral hemorrhage (warfarin anticoagulation) who presented within 6 h after symptom onset and a matched set of non-anticoagulant-associated intracerebral hemorrhage patients. Associations between 24 h blood pressure burden, hematoma expansion, and mortality were evaluated using univariable and multivariable logistic regression. Results Sixty-nine anticoagulant-associated intracerebral hemorrhage and 69 matched non-anticoagulant-associated intracerebral hemorrhage patients were included. Hematoma expansion occurred in 25 anticoagulant-associated intracerebral hemorrhage patients (36%) and 15 control patients (22 %; p = 0.091). Twenty-four-hour blood pressure burden was in fact lower in anticoagulant-associated intracerebral hemorrhage than in non-anticoagulant-associated intracerebral hemorrhage patients (p = 0.033). No association was found in anticoagulant-associated intracerebral hemorrhage and non-anticoagulant-associated intracerebral hemorrhage between BP burden, hematoma expansion, and 30-day mortality. Conclusion We found no evidence that higher 24 h blood pressure burden is associated with hematoma expansion or mortality in anticoagulant-associated intracerebral hemorrhage.

Keywords: Stroke; blood pressure; intracerebral hemorrhage; stroke subtype; warfarin.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • Anticoagulants / adverse effects*
  • Anticoagulants / therapeutic use
  • Blood Pressure / drug effects*
  • Cerebral Hemorrhage / chemically induced*
  • Cerebral Hemorrhage / diagnostic imaging
  • Cerebral Hemorrhage / physiopathology
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Logistic Models
  • Male
  • Multivariate Analysis
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Tomography, X-Ray Computed
  • Warfarin / adverse effects*
  • Warfarin / therapeutic use


  • Anticoagulants
  • Warfarin