Background and aims: A subset of patients who undergo ileal pouch-anal anastomosis [IPAA] for ulcerative colitis [UC] will later be diagnosed with denovo Crohn's disease [CD]. These patients have a higher risk of pouch failure. In this study we evaluated inflammatory bowel disease [IBD] serology in patients with denovo CD and examined the success of anti-tumour necrosis factor-alpha [anti-TNFα] therapy in preventing ileostomy in denovo CD patients who failed anti-TNFα therapy before IPAA.
Methods: A prospectively maintained database of patients undergoing IPAA was reviewed to identify patients who developed denovo CD [defined as small bowel inflammation above the pouch inlet or pouch fistula/perianal disease appearing more than 3 months after stoma closure]. Clinical characteristics and IBD serology were analysed. Treatment failure was defined as pouch failure requiring ileostomy or pouchectomy.
Results: Of 350 patients included in the study, 92 [26%] patients developed denovo CD. Significantly more denovo CD patients had anti-I2 positivity postoperatively versus preoperatively [p = 0.007]. Anti-TNFα therapy successfully treated denovo CD in 28 out of 38 [74%] patients. Out of 17 patients with denovo CD who had failed to respond to anti-TNFα agents before surgery and were treated with anti-TNFα therapy after surgery, 12 [71%] patients responded to treatment.
Conclusions: I2 serology may possibly help identify patients who have developed or are at risk for developing denovo CD. Anti-TNFα therapy for denovo CD after IPAA can help prevent permanent ileostomy in almost 75% of cases, even in patients who previously failed anti-TNFα treatment before surgery.
Keywords: Biomarkers; surgery.
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