Low Social Position, Periodontal Disease, and Poor Oral Health-Related Quality of Life in Adults With Systemic Arterial Hypertension

J Periodontol. 2016 Dec;87(12):1379-1387. doi: 10.1902/jop.2016.160204. Epub 2016 Jul 29.


Background: There is little evidence on the association between periodontal disease and oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) in individuals with chronic diseases, including hypertension. The aim of this study is to identify relationships among sociodemographic characteristics, smoking, tooth loss, dental caries, periodontal status, and OHRQoL in adults with systemic arterial hypertension.

Methods: A cross-sectional study involving 195 adults (mean age: 55.7 years) with systemic arterial hypertension used interviews and oral examinations to collect data on sociodemographic characteristics (age, sex, income); use of antihypertensive medication; smoking; tooth loss; dental caries; periodontal status (bleeding on probing, calculus, and attachment loss); and OHRQoL/oral health impact profile. The Wilson and Cleary (Wilson IB, Cleary PD. JAMA 1995;273:59-65) conceptual model was used to test direct and indirect relationships among variables using structural equation modeling.

Results: Lower age, male sex, smoking, and lower income directly predicted worse periodontal status. Tooth loss, dental caries, worse periodontal status, and smoking were directly linked to poor OHRQoL. Age was indirectly linked to worse periodontal status via income. Income and smoking indirectly predicted poor OHRQoL via periodontal status.

Conclusions: Findings support an effect of periodontal disease on OHRQoL in people with systemic arterial hypertension. Periodontal status mediated associations of sociodemographic characteristics and smoking with OHRQoL through different pathways.

Keywords: Hypertension; periodontal diseases; periodontitis; quality of life; socioeconomic factors.

MeSH terms

  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Dental Caries
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Hypertension / complications*
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Oral Health*
  • Periodontal Diseases / complications*
  • Quality of Life*