Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) represent a small population of blood cells (5-40 cells/mm(3)), with an ability to differentiate into endothelial cells that form the lining of the blood vessels and contribute to postnatal angiogenesis. Abundant evidence shows that recruitment of EPCs from the bone marrow, the monocyte/macrophage lineage and the organs facilitate the endothelial regeneration and repair. Changes in the number of EPCs were observed in both, chronic kidney and cardiovascular diseases. Thus, these cells were tested for usage in diagnosis and therapy. In this paper, we review the current knowledge on the EPC biology and contribution of these cells to the kidney and cardiovascular diseases.