Chondroitin sulfate-capped super-paramagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles as potential carriers of doxorubicin hydrochloride

Carbohydr Polym. 2016 Oct 20:151:546-556. doi: 10.1016/j.carbpol.2016.05.102. Epub 2016 May 29.


Chondroitin-4-sulfate (CS), a glycosaminoglycan, was used to prepare CS-capped super-paramagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles, which were further employed for loading a water-soluble chemotherapeutic agent (doxorubicin hydrochloride, DOX). CS-capped SPIONs have potential biomedical application in cancer targeting. The optimized formulation had a hydrodynamic size of 91.2±0.8nm (PDI; 0.228±0.004) and zeta potential of -49.1±1.66mV. DOX was loaded onto the formulation up to 2% (w/w) by physical interaction with CS. TEM showed nano-sized particles having a core-shell structure. XRD confirmed crystal phase of iron oxide. FT-IR conceived the interaction of iron oxide with CS as bidentate chelation and also confirmed DOX loading. Vibration sample magnetometry confirmed super-paramagnetic nature of nanoparticles, with saturation magnetization of 0.238emug(-1). In vitro release profile at pH 7.4 showed that 96.67% of DOX was released within 24h (first order kinetics). MTT assay in MCF7 cells showed significantly higher (p<0.0001) cytotoxicity for DOX in SPIONs than DOX solution (IC50 values 6.294±0.4169 and 11.316±0.1102μgmL(-1), respectively).

Keywords: Box-Behnken design; Chondroitin sulfate; Chondroitin sulfate A (PubChem CID: 53477710); Doxorubicin; Doxorubicin hydrochloride (PubChem CID: 443939); Drug loading; Glycosaminoglycan; Super-paramagnetic iron oxide nanoparticle.

MeSH terms

  • Antineoplastic Agents* / administration & dosage
  • Antineoplastic Agents* / chemistry
  • Cell Survival / drug effects
  • Chondroitin Sulfates* / administration & dosage
  • Chondroitin Sulfates* / chemistry
  • Doxorubicin* / administration & dosage
  • Doxorubicin* / chemistry
  • Drug Carriers* / administration & dosage
  • Drug Carriers* / chemistry
  • Drug Liberation
  • Humans
  • MCF-7 Cells
  • Magnetite Nanoparticles* / administration & dosage
  • Magnetite Nanoparticles* / chemistry
  • Magnetite Nanoparticles* / ultrastructure
  • Microscopy, Electron, Transmission
  • Particle Size
  • Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared
  • X-Ray Diffraction


  • Antineoplastic Agents
  • Drug Carriers
  • Magnetite Nanoparticles
  • Doxorubicin
  • Chondroitin Sulfates