Assessment of Activities of Daily Living, Self-Care, and Independence

Arch Clin Neuropsychol. 2016 Sep;31(6):506-16. doi: 10.1093/arclin/acw049. Epub 2016 Jul 29.


Activities of daily living (ADL) comprise the basic actions that involve caring for one's self and body, including personal care, mobility, and eating. In this review article, we (1) review useful clinical tools including a discussion on ways to approach ADL assessment across settings, (2) highlight relevant literature evaluating the relationship between cognitive functioning and ADLs, (3) discuss other biopsychosocial factors affecting ADL performance, (4) provide clinical recommendations for enhancing ADL capacity with an emphasis on self-care tasks (eating, grooming, dressing, bathing and toileting), and (5) identify interventions that treatment providers can implement to reduce the burden of ADL care.

Keywords: Assessment; Dementia; Disability/Handicaps; Everyday functioning.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Activities of Daily Living / psychology*
  • Dementia / diagnosis*
  • Dementia / psychology
  • Humans
  • Independent Living*
  • Neuropsychological Tests
  • Self Care*