Relative contribution of promoter and intragenic sequences in the hormonal regulation of rat beta-casein transgenes

Mol Endocrinol. 1989 Mar;3(3):447-53. doi: 10.1210/mend-3-3-447.


In order to identify DNA sequences responsible for the regulation beta-casein gene expression, lines of transgenic mice bearing the entire rat beta-casein gene and two rat beta-casein promoter chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) fusion genes have been established. All three transgenes have been shown previously to be regulated in a tissue- and stage specific manner. To investigate the relative contribution of promoter and intragenic sequences in the hormonal regulation of the beta-casein gene, mammary explant cultures derived from these lines of mice have now been performed, and the effects of PRL and glucocorticoids on transgene as compared with endogenous beta-casein gene expression have been quantified. After the addition of PRL to cultures performed in the presence of insulin and glucocorticoids, a 25- to 40-fold induction of endogenous mouse beta-casein mRNA was observed after 48 hr. A comparable greater than 25-fold induction of transgene expression after PRL addition was observed in explant cultures derived from a line of mice expressing the entire rat beta-casein gene. In contrast, PRL addition elicited only a 1- to 4.5-fold increase in CAT activity in cultures derived from two lines of mice bearing casein-CAT fusion genes with either 524 or 2300 base pairs of 5'-flanking DNA. In the presence of insulin, glucocorticoid or PRL addition alone increased endogenous beta-casein gene expression 2- to 2.5-fold and 5- to 10-fold, respectively, but only a 1.2- to 2.5-fold induction of CAT activity was observed for each hormone.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

Publication types

  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Caseins / genetics*
  • Cloning, Molecular
  • Gene Expression Regulation
  • Mice
  • Mice, Transgenic
  • Prolactin / pharmacology*
  • Promoter Regions, Genetic*
  • Rats
  • Transcription, Genetic / drug effects


  • Caseins
  • Prolactin