Minireview: Endocrine Disruptors: Past Lessons and Future Directions

Mol Endocrinol. 2016 Aug;30(8):833-47. doi: 10.1210/me.2016-1096. Epub 2016 Jul 19.


Within the past few decades, the concept of endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) has risen from a position of total obscurity to become a focus of dialogue, debate, and concern among scientists, physicians, regulators, and the public. The emergence and development of this field of study has not always followed a smooth path, and researchers continue to wrestle with questions about the low-dose effects and nonmonotonic dose responses seen with EDCs, their biological mechanisms of action, the true pervasiveness of these chemicals in our environment and in our bodies, and the extent of their effects on human and wildlife health. This review chronicles the development of the unique, multidisciplinary field of endocrine disruption, highlighting what we have learned about the threat of EDCs and lessons that could be relevant to other fields. It also offers perspectives on the future of the field and opportunities to better protect human health.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Benzhydryl Compounds / toxicity
  • Endocrine Disruptors / toxicity*
  • Epigenesis, Genetic / drug effects
  • Epigenesis, Genetic / genetics
  • Hormones / metabolism
  • Humans
  • Phenols / toxicity
  • Reproduction / drug effects
  • Signal Transduction / drug effects


  • Benzhydryl Compounds
  • Endocrine Disruptors
  • Hormones
  • Phenols
  • bisphenol A