Meta-analysis of the DRD5 VNTR in persistent ADHD

Eur Neuropsychopharmacol. 2016 Sep;26(9):1527-1532. doi: 10.1016/j.euroneuro.2016.06.012. Epub 2016 Jul 29.


Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a common neuropsychiatric disorder with a complex genetic background. DRD5, the gene encoding the dopamine receptor D5, was recently confirmed as a candidate gene for ADHD in children through meta-analysis. In this study, we aimed at studying the association of the ADHD-associated variable number tandem repeat (VNTR) polymorphism upstream of DRD5 with adult ADHD. We compiled data from six sites of the International Multicentre persistent ADHD CollaboraTion (IMpACT) and reached N=6979 (3344 cases and 3635 healthy participants), the largest sample investigated so far. We tested the association of the common DRD5 alleles with categorically defined ADHD and with inattentive and hyperactive/impulsive symptom counts. Our findings provide evidence that none of the common DRD5 alleles are associated with ADHD risk or ADHD symptom counts in adults.

Keywords: Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder; Candidate gene; DRD5; Meta-analysis.

Publication types

  • Meta-Analysis
  • Multicenter Study

MeSH terms

  • Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity / genetics*
  • Genetic Predisposition to Disease
  • Humans
  • Minisatellite Repeats*
  • Receptors, Dopamine D5 / genetics*


  • DRD5 protein, human
  • Receptors, Dopamine D5