1'-Acetoxychavicol acetate ameliorates age-related spatial memory deterioration by increasing serum ketone body production as a complementary energy source for neuronal cells

Chem Biol Interact. 2016 Sep 25:257:101-9. doi: 10.1016/j.cbi.2016.07.031. Epub 2016 Jul 29.


1'-Acetoxychavicol acetate (ACA) is naturally obtained from the rhizomes and seeds of Alpinia galangal. Here, we examined the effect of ACA on learning and memory in senescence-accelerated mice prone 8 (SAMP8). In mice that were fed a control diet containing 0.02% ACA for 25 weeks, the learning ability in the Morris water maze test was significantly enhanced in comparison with mice that were fed the control diet alone. In the Y-maze test, SAMP8 mice showed decreased spontaneous alterations in comparison with senescence-accelerated resistant/1 (SAMR1) mice, a homologous control, which was improved by ACA pretreatment. Serum metabolite profiles were obtained by GC-MS analysis, and each metabolic profile was plotted on a 3D score plot. Based upon the diagram, it can be seen that the distribution areas for the three groups were completely separate. Furthermore, the contents of β-hydroxybutyric acid and palmitic acid in the serum of SAMP8-ACA mice were higher than those of SAMP8-control mice and SAMR1-control mice. We also found that SAMR1 mice did not show histological abnormalities, whereas histological damage in the CA1 region of the hippocampus in SAMP8-control mice was observed. However, SAMP8-ACA mice were observed in a similar manner as SAMR1 mice. These findings confirm that ACA increases the serum concentrations of β-hydroxybutyric acid and palmitic acid levels and thus these fuels might contribute to the maintenance of the cognitive performance of SAMP8 mice.

Keywords: 1′-Acetoxychavicol acetate; Metabolite profile; Morris water maze test; Senescence-accelerated mouse prone 8 (SAMP8); Y-maze test; β-Hydroxybutyric acid.

MeSH terms

  • 3-Hydroxybutyric Acid / blood
  • Aging / drug effects
  • Aging / physiology*
  • Alpinia / chemistry
  • Animals
  • Benzyl Alcohols / pharmacology*
  • Energy Metabolism / drug effects*
  • Hippocampus / metabolism
  • Ketone Bodies / biosynthesis*
  • Maze Learning
  • Metabolome
  • Mice
  • Neurons
  • Palmitic Acid / blood
  • Spatial Memory / drug effects*


  • Benzyl Alcohols
  • Ketone Bodies
  • Palmitic Acid
  • 1'-acetoxychavicol acetate
  • 3-Hydroxybutyric Acid