Given the expected rapid growth of the geriatric world population (=individuals aged >65 years) to 1.3 billion by 2050, age-related diseases such as osteoporosis and its sequelae, osteoporotic fractures, are on the rise. Areal bone mineral density (aBMD) by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is the current gold standard to diagnose osteoporosis, to assess osteoporotic fracture risk, and to monitor treatment-induced BMD changes. However, most fragility fractures occur in patients with normal or osteopenic aBMD, indicating that factors beyond BMD impact bone strength. Recent developments in DXA technology such as TBS, VFA, and hip geometry analysis are now available to assess some of these non-BMD parameters from the DXA image. This review will discuss the use of DXA and DXA-assisted technologies and their respective advantages and disadvantages. Special attention is given to if and how each method is indicated in the geriatric population, and the latest ISCD 2015 guidelines have been incorporated.
Keywords: Aging; FRAX; Geriatrics; ISCD.
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