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. 2016 Jul 29;21(8):993.
doi: 10.3390/molecules21080993.

Chemical Composition and Inhibitory Effect of Lentinula Edodes Ethanolic Extract on Experimentally Induced Atopic Dermatitis in Vitro and in Vivo

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Free PMC article

Chemical Composition and Inhibitory Effect of Lentinula Edodes Ethanolic Extract on Experimentally Induced Atopic Dermatitis in Vitro and in Vivo

Eun-Ju Choi et al. Molecules. .
Free PMC article

Abstract

The ethanolic extract of Lentinula edodes was partially analyzed and then characterized for its efficacy in treating atopic dermatitis. Polyphenols were determined to be the major antioxidant component in the extract (6.12 mg/g), followed by flavonoids (1.76 mg/g), β-carotene (28.75 μg/g), and lycopene (5.25 μg/g). An atopic dermatitis (AD) model was established and epidermal and dermal ear thickness, mast cell infiltration, and serum immunoglobulin levels were measured after oral administration of the L. edodes extract for 4 weeks. L. edodes extract decreased Dermatophagoides farinae extract (DFE) and 4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB)-induced expression of several inflammatory cytokines in the ears, cervical lymph nodes, and splenocytes. Consequently, L. edodes extract may have therapeutic potential in the treatment of AD attributable to its immunomodulatory effects.

Keywords: Lentinula edodes; atopic dermatitis; immunomodulatory; inflammatory cytokines.

Conflict of interest statement

The authors declare no conflict of interest.

Figures

Figure 1
Figure 1
FT-IR spectrum of a crude Lentinula edodes ethanolic extract.
Figure 2
Figure 2
HaCaT cells were pre-incubated with TNF-α (10 ng/mL) and IFN-γ (10 ng/mL) to stimulate the cells. After 6 h of stimulation, cells were harvested and total RNA was isolated. Gene expression levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNFα, CCL17, IL-1β, and IL-6) were measured by conventional PCR (A); After 6 h of stimulation, cells were harvested and total protein was isolated. Phosphorylation of ERK1/2 (B) and JNK (D) was inhibited by treatment with L. edodes extract, but that of p38 was not (C). The results provided are representative of three independent experiments. * CSA, cyclosporine A (1 μg/mL); +, treatment; −, no treatment.
Figure 3
Figure 3
Histopathological and serum analysis to assess the effects of L. edodes extract on ear thickness and mast cell infiltration. Ear thickness was measured with a dial thickness gauge every 3 days after 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB) or Dermatophagoides farinae extract (DFE) application (A); Representative photomicrographs of ear sections stained with hematoxylin and eosin (B) or toluidine blue (C); epidermal (D) and dermal (E) thickness was measured using microphotographs of hematoxylin and eosin stained tissue; (F) The number of infiltrated mast cells was determined on the basis of toluidine blue staining. Blood samples were collected by orbital puncture at day 28. Plasma IgE (G) and IgG2a (H) levels were quantified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Data are presented as the mean ± SD of triplicate determinations. * Significant difference from the value of the DFE/DNCB-treated mice at p < 0.05. AD, atopic dermatitis induced by DFE and DNCB treatment. The pictures shown are representative of each group (n = 3–6). The original magnification was 100×. CON, control; L. edodes, Lentinula edodes; AD, atopic dermatitis.
Figure 4
Figure 4
Effect of L. edodes extract on the expression of various cytokines in the ear. The ears were excised on day 28 and total RNA was isolated. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction was performed as described in the Materials and Methods. The relative fold change in mRNA for IL-4 (A); IL-13 (B); IL-17 (C); IL-22 (D); IL-31 (E); and TNFα (F) are shown. Data are presented as the mean ± SD of triplicate determinations. * Significantly different from the value of the DFE/DNCB-treated mice at p < 0.05. DFE, Dermatophagoides farinae extract; DNCB, 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene; AD, atopic dermatitis induced by DFE and DNCB treatment.
Figure 5
Figure 5
Effect L. edodes extract on the expression of various cytokines in the cervical lymph nodes. The cervical lymph node was excised on day 28 and total RNA was isolated. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction was performed as described in the Materials and Methods. The relative fold change in mRNA for IL-4 (A); IL-22 (B); IL-31 (C); TNF-α (D); and INF-γ (E) are shown. Data are presented as the mean ± SD of triplicate determinations. * Significantly different from the value of the DFE/DNCB-treated mice at p < 0.05. DFE, Dermatophagoides farinae extract; DNCB, 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene; AD, atopic dermatitis induced by DFE and DNCB treatment.
Figure 6
Figure 6
Effect of L. edodes extract on the expression of various cytokines in the splenocytes. The splenocytes were separated from spleen on day 28 and total RNA was isolated. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction was performed as described in the Materials and Methods. The relative fold change in mRNA for IL-4 (A); IL-10 (B); IL-17 (C); IL-22 (D); TNF-α (E); and INF-γ (F) are shown. Data are presented as the mean ± SD of triplicate determinations. * Significantly different from the value of the DFE/DNCB-treated mice at p < 0.05. DFE, Dermatophagoides farinae extract; DNCB, 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene; AD, atopic dermatitis induced by DFE and DNCB treatment.

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