Beverage Intake Assessment Questionnaire: Relative Validity and Repeatability in a Spanish Population With Metabolic Syndrome From the PREDIMED-PLUS Study

Nutrients. 2016 Jul 30;8(8):475. doi: 10.3390/nu8080475.


We assess the repeatability and relative validity of a Spanish beverage intake questionnaire for assessing water intake from beverages. The present analysis was performed within the framework of the PREDIMED-PLUS trial. The study participants were adults (aged 55-75) with a BMI ≥27 and <40 kg/m², and at least three components of Metabolic Syndrome (MetS). A trained dietitian completed the questionnaire. Participants provided 24-h urine samples, and the volume and urine osmolality were recorded. The repeatability of the baseline measurement at 6 and 1 year was examined by paired Student's t-test comparisons. A total of 160 participants were included in the analysis. The Bland-Altman analysis showed relatively good agreement between total daily fluid intake assessed using the fluid-specific questionnaire, and urine osmolality and 24-h volume with parameter estimates of -0.65 and 0.22, respectively (R² = 0.20; p < 0.001). In the repeatability test, no significant differences were found between neither type of beverage nor total daily fluid intake at 6 months and 1-year assessment, compared to baseline. The proposed fluid-specific assessment questionnaire designed to assess the consumption of water and other beverages in Spanish adult individuals was found to be relatively valid with good repeatability.

Keywords: PREDIMED-PLUS study; Spain; beverage; fluid questionnaire; relative validity; repeatability.

Publication types

  • Validation Study

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • Beverages* / adverse effects
  • Body Mass Index
  • Databases, Factual
  • Dehydration / diagnosis*
  • Dehydration / ethnology
  • Dehydration / etiology
  • Dehydration / urine
  • Diet / adverse effects*
  • Diet / ethnology
  • Drinking Water*
  • Energy Intake*
  • Female
  • Follow-Up Studies
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Metabolic Syndrome / complications*
  • Metabolic Syndrome / ethnology
  • Metabolic Syndrome / etiology
  • Metabolic Syndrome / urine
  • Middle Aged
  • Nutrition Assessment*
  • Osmolar Concentration
  • Reproducibility of Results
  • Self Report
  • Spain


  • Drinking Water