Gastroprotective potential of hydro-alcoholic extract of Pattanga (Caesalpinia sappan Linn.)

J Ethnopharmacol. 2017 Feb 2;197:294-305. doi: 10.1016/j.jep.2016.07.081. Epub 2016 Jul 30.


Ethno-pharmacological relevance: Pattanga is botanically equated as Caesalpinia sappan Linn. (Family: Caesalpiniaceae) and is used in Ayurveda system of medicine since ages. According to Ayurveda, useful part is Heartwood, which is bitter, astringent and acrid and is useful in vitiated conditions of vata and pitta, burning sensation, wounds, ulcers, leprosy, skin diseases, menorrhagia, leucorrhea, and diabetes. It is used as a major ingredient in Ayurvedic formulations and preparations like Patrangasava, Chandanadya Thalia, and Karpuradyarka.

Aim of the study: The present study is planned to evaluate the gastroprotective activity of the selected Ayurvedic drug using three different in vivo gastric ulcer models, so as to provide scientific evidence for the Ayurvedic claims.

Materials and methods: For this study, Wistar albino rats fasted overnight were selected. The hydroalcoholic extract of Caesalpinia sappan heartwood at the dose level 250 and 500mg/kg body weight was selected and administered orally before necrotizing agents. Antioxidant and antiulcer parameters were evaluated and the stomach samples were subjected for histopathological studies. In addition, PGE2 estimation and protein expressions of COX-1, COX-2 and iNOS were analyzed by Western blot. The plant extract was subjected to LCMS/MS analysis. In addition, Cytoprotective effect in isolated gastric mucosal cells, TUNEL Assay, Acid neutralizing capacity assay, H+/K+ ATPase inhibitory assay were performed.

Results: The ulcer protection was found to be 92%, 86% and 64% against ethanol, NSAID and pylorus ligation induced ulcer respectively. The hydro-alcoholic extract of C. sappan heartwood exhibited cytoprotective effect with 76.82% reduction against indomethacin-induced cytotoxicity at the concentration of 25µg/ml. C. sappan showed 63.91% inhibition in H+/K+ ATPase inhibitory assay at the concentration 500µg/ml.

Conclusions: Our results depict that Caesalpinia sappan heartwood possesses gastroprotective activity, possibly mediated through cytoprotection and antioxidant mechanisms. The data obtained in the present study provides scientific support for the traditional use of Caesalpinia sappan in the management of peptic ulcer.

Keywords: Antiulcer; Caesalpinia sappan; LCMS/MS; Pattanga.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal / pharmacology
  • Anti-Ulcer Agents / chemistry
  • Anti-Ulcer Agents / pharmacology
  • Antioxidants / pharmacology
  • Caesalpinia / chemistry*
  • Cyclooxygenase 1 / metabolism
  • Cyclooxygenase 2 / metabolism
  • Dinoprostone / metabolism
  • Ethanol / chemistry
  • Female
  • Gastric Mucosa / drug effects*
  • Gastric Mucosa / metabolism
  • H(+)-K(+)-Exchanging ATPase / metabolism
  • Indomethacin / pharmacology
  • Membrane Proteins / metabolism
  • Nitric Oxide Synthase Type II / metabolism
  • Phytotherapy / methods
  • Plant Extracts / chemistry
  • Plant Extracts / pharmacology*
  • Protective Agents / chemistry
  • Protective Agents / pharmacology*
  • Rats
  • Rats, Wistar
  • Stomach Ulcer / drug therapy*
  • Stomach Ulcer / metabolism


  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal
  • Anti-Ulcer Agents
  • Antioxidants
  • Membrane Proteins
  • Plant Extracts
  • Protective Agents
  • Ethanol
  • Nitric Oxide Synthase Type II
  • Nos2 protein, rat
  • Cyclooxygenase 1
  • Cyclooxygenase 2
  • Ptgs1 protein, rat
  • H(+)-K(+)-Exchanging ATPase
  • Dinoprostone
  • Indomethacin