Patients with HIV have a proclivity to develop liver fibrosis, especially when associated with other conditions such as HCV, HBV, and NAFLD. Identifying HIV-infected patients with significant fibrosis or cirrhosis plays an important role in clinical and therapeutic decision-making. Liver biopsy is currently considered as the gold standard for fibrosis assessment but carries many shortcomings (cost, invasiveness, complications, false negative rate of 20 %). Multiple non-invasive methods of liver fibrosis assessment have been developed, but not all have been studied in HIV-infected individuals. Non-invasive liver fibrosis tools include both serologic-based testing scores (rely on direct and/or indirect markers) such as APRI, FIB4, FibroTest, FibroSpect II, HepaScore, or imaging-based methods such as vibration controlled liver elastography. There is validated data to support the use of non-invasive modalities of fibrosis assessment in HIV-HCV co-infected individuals for the exclusion of cirrhosis, but may be poorly reliable or not enough data exists for the assessment of other co-morbid disease processes.
Keywords: Biomarkers; HIV non-alcoholic fatty liver disease; HIV-hepatitis B; HIV-hepatitis C; Liver fibrosis; Transient elastography.