Activation of muscle-specific genes in pigment, nerve, fat, liver, and fibroblast cell lines by forced expression of MyoD

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1989 Jul;86(14):5434-8. doi: 10.1073/pnas.86.14.5434.


MyoD is a master regulatory gene for myogenesis. Under the control of a retroviral long terminal repeat, MyoD was expressed in a variety of differentiated cell types by using either a DNA transfection vector or a retrovirus. Expression of muscle-specific proteins was observed in chicken, human, and rat primary fibroblasts and in differentiated melanoma, neuroblastoma, liver, and adipocyte lines. The ability of MyoD to activate muscle genes in a variety of differentiated cell lines suggests that no additional tissue-specific factors other than MyoD are needed to activate the downstream program for terminal muscle differentiation or that, if such factors exist, they are themselves activated by MyoD expression.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Adipose Tissue
  • Animals
  • Cell Differentiation*
  • Cell Line
  • Fibroblasts
  • Gene Expression Regulation*
  • Genes, Regulator*
  • Genetic Vectors
  • Humans
  • Liver
  • Melanoma
  • Moloney murine sarcoma virus / genetics
  • Muscles / cytology*
  • Neuroblastoma
  • Transfection