Jasmonates (JAs) are essential phytohormones regulating plant development and environmental adaptation. Many components of the JA-signalling pathway have been identified. However, our insight into the mechanisms by which a single bioactive JA hormone can regulate a myriad of physiological processes and provide specificity in the response remains limited. Recent findings on molecular components suggest that, despite apparent redundancy, specificity is achieved by (1) distinct protein-protein interactions forming unique JAZ/transcription factor complexes, (2) discrete spatiotemporal expression of specific components, (3) variable hormone thresholds for the formation of multiple JA receptor complexes and (4) integration of several signals by JA-pathway components. The molecular modularity that is thereby created enables a single bioactive hormone to specifically modulate multiple JA-outputs in response to different environmental and developmental cues.
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