Hospitalizations and Other Health Care Resource Utilization Among Patients with Deep Vein Thrombosis Treated with Rivaroxaban Versus Low-molecular-weight Heparin and Warfarin in the Outpatient Setting

Clin Ther. 2016 Aug;38(8):1803-1816.e3. doi: 10.1016/j.clinthera.2016.07.002. Epub 2016 Aug 2.


Purpose: Compared with low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) and warfarin, the oral anticoagulant rivaroxaban has advantages, such as simplified care, that may lead to less health care resource utilization.

Methods: A retrospective, matched-cohort analysis was conducted using claims dated between January 2011 and December 2013 from the Truven Health Analytics MarketScan databases. Adult patients who had a primary diagnosis of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) during an outpatient or emergency room (ER) visit after November 2, 2012, and who were treated with rivaroxaban or LMWH/warfarin on the same day, were identified. Patients were observed over 1, 2, 3, and 4 weeks after the DVT diagnosis. The mean numbers of hospitalizations for all causes and for venous thromboembolism (VTE) (which included those for DVT or pulmonary embolism), as well as other health care resource utilization (ER, outpatient, and other visits), and the associated health care costs and pharmacy costs, were evaluated and compared between cohorts using the Lin method.

Findings: All of the 512 rivaroxaban-treated patients were well matched with the LMWH/warfarin-treated patients. The mean numbers of all-cause hospitalizations were significantly lower in the rivaroxaban users compared with those in the LMWH/warfarin users over 1 week (0.012 vs 0.032; P = 0.044) and 2 weeks (0.022 vs 0.048; P = 0.040). The corresponding mean numbers of VTE-related hospitalizations were significantly lower with rivaroxaban over 1 week (0.008 vs 0.028; P = 0.020), 2 weeks (0.016 vs 0.042; P = 0.020), and 4 weeks (0.034 vs 0.068; P = 0.036). The mean numbers of all-cause and VTE-related outpatient visits were also significantly lower in rivaroxaban users compared with those in LMWH/warfarin users over 1, 2, 3, and 4 weeks (all, P < 0.001). In terms of all-cause and VTE-related ER and other visits, no statistically significant differences were found between cohorts over the first 4 weeks. The associated mean all-cause total health care costs were significantly lower in the rivaroxaban users compared with those in the LMWH/warfarin users over 1 week (US $2332 vs $3428; P < 0.001) and 2 weeks ($3108 vs $4524; P < 0.001); moreover, significantly lower mean costs related to all-cause hospitalizations (weeks 1 and 2) and pharmacy (weeks 1-4) were observed in patients treated with rivaroxaban, while no differences were found in costs related to ER visits (weeks 1-4), outpatient visits (weeks 1-4), or other visits (with the exception of week 1).

Implications: Patients with DVT treated with rivaroxaban after an outpatient/ER visit had significantly lower mean numbers of hospitalizations and outpatient visits, as well as lower mean total, hospitalization, and pharmacy costs during the first 2 weeks of treatment compared with those in matched LMWH/warfarin users.

Keywords: deep vein thrombosis; health care resource utilization; healthcare costs; pulmonary embolism; rivaroxaban; venous thromboembolism.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Anticoagulants / therapeutic use
  • Databases, Factual
  • Female
  • Health Care Costs
  • Heparin, Low-Molecular-Weight / economics
  • Heparin, Low-Molecular-Weight / therapeutic use*
  • Hospitalization / economics
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Outpatients
  • Pulmonary Embolism / drug therapy
  • Pulmonary Embolism / economics
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Rivaroxaban / therapeutic use*
  • Venous Thromboembolism / drug therapy
  • Venous Thrombosis / drug therapy*
  • Venous Thrombosis / economics
  • Warfarin / therapeutic use*


  • Anticoagulants
  • Heparin, Low-Molecular-Weight
  • Warfarin
  • Rivaroxaban