Micronutrient Status in Morbidly Obese Patients Prior to Laparoscopic Sleeve Gastrectomy and Micronutrient Changes 5 years Post-surgery

Obes Surg. 2017 Mar;27(3):606-612. doi: 10.1007/s11695-016-2313-y.


Background: Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) has become more popular in recent years. The aim of this study was to determine the vitamin and mineral status in patients up to 5 years after LSG and to explore changes that occurred from pre-operatively to 1, 2 and 5 years after surgery.

Methods: Data reviewed included age, sex, weight and body mass index (BMI), micronutrient supplements consumed and blood levels of 25 hydroxyvitamin D (25 (OH) D), PTH (parathyroid hormone), ferritin, haemoglobin, folate and vitamin B12, prior to and post-LSG. Data was collated from medical records of morbidly obese patients who had undergone LSG surgery.

Results: There were a maximum of 336 patients with pre-operative and 1 year after surgery values, n = 272 for 2 years and n = 116 for 5 years after surgery. At 5 years, only 54 % (58/107) of patients reported taking daily multivitamin supplements. Whilst most patients had values within the reference range for haemoglobin, vitamin B12, folate and vitamin D 5 years after LSG, 36 % (34/94) of the patients had serum ferritin below reference value.

Conclusion: This study has highlighted a low micronutrient supplementation adherence. Ferritin levels decreased over time even with multivitamin supplementation. To improve micronutrient guidelines prior to and after LSG, more research, including controlled supplementation studies, are necessary.

Keywords: Micronutrient status; Multivitamins; Sleeve gastrectomy; Vitamin D.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Body Mass Index
  • Dietary Supplements
  • Female
  • Follow-Up Studies
  • Gastrectomy* / methods
  • Gastrectomy* / rehabilitation
  • Humans
  • Laparoscopy / methods
  • Laparoscopy / rehabilitation
  • Male
  • Micronutrients / blood*
  • Middle Aged
  • Morbidity
  • Nutrition Therapy
  • Nutritional Status*
  • Obesity, Morbid / blood*
  • Obesity, Morbid / surgery*
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Trace Elements / blood
  • Vitamins / administration & dosage


  • Micronutrients
  • Trace Elements
  • Vitamins