Predicting In-Hospital Mortality in Patients With Acute Myocardial Infarction

J Am Coll Cardiol. 2016 Aug 9;68(6):626-635. doi: 10.1016/j.jacc.2016.05.049.


Background: As a foundation for quality improvement, assessing clinical outcomes across hospitals requires appropriate risk adjustment to account for differences in patient case mix, including presentation after cardiac arrest.

Objectives: The aim of this study was to develop and validate a parsimonious patient-level clinical risk model of in-hospital mortality for contemporary patients with acute myocardial infarction.

Methods: Patient characteristics at the time of presentation in the ACTION (Acute Coronary Treatment and Intervention Outcomes Network) Registry-GWTG (Get With the Guidelines) database from January 2012 through December 2013 were used to develop a multivariate hierarchical logistic regression model predicting in-hospital mortality. The population (243,440 patients from 655 hospitals) was divided into a 60% sample for model derivation, with the remaining 40% used for model validation. A simplified risk score was created to enable prospective risk stratification in clinical care.

Results: The in-hospital mortality rate was 4.6%. Age, heart rate, systolic blood pressure, presentation after cardiac arrest, presentation in cardiogenic shock, presentation in heart failure, presentation with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction, creatinine clearance, and troponin ratio were all independently associated with in-hospital mortality. The C statistic was 0.88, with good calibration. The model performed well in subgroups based on age; sex; race; transfer status; and the presence of diabetes mellitus, renal dysfunction, cardiac arrest, cardiogenic shock, and ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction. Observed mortality rates varied substantially across risk groups, ranging from 0.4% in the lowest risk group (score <30) to 49.5% in the highest risk group (score >59).

Conclusions: This parsimonious risk model for in-hospital mortality is a valid instrument for risk adjustment and risk stratification in contemporary patients with acute myocardial infarction.

Keywords: cardiac arrest; cardiogenic shock; creatinine clearance; model; risk prediction; systolic blood pressure.

Publication types

  • Multicenter Study
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • Female
  • Hospital Mortality / trends
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Myocardial Infarction / mortality*
  • Prognosis
  • Registries*
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Risk Assessment / methods*
  • Risk Factors
  • United States / epidemiology