A case of Rhodococcus equi pneumonia associated with septicemia and metastatic brain abscess in an HIV-infected male is presented. Clinical findings and the diagnostic and therapeutic approach are discussed. Cavitating pulmonary disease was rapidly improved by six-week combined oral and parenteral antibiotic treatment. However, pulmonary relapse and brain abscess were documented after one month. Therapy with ceftriaxone, ciprofloxacin and cotrimoxazole on an outpatient basis again led to clinical and radiological improvement after four weeks. Surgical resection of localized processes should be considered early, and prolonged antibiotic therapy over months is recommended.