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Review
, 117, 14-26

Combined Pulmonary Fibrosis and Emphysema: The Many Aspects of a Cohabitation Contract

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Review

Combined Pulmonary Fibrosis and Emphysema: The Many Aspects of a Cohabitation Contract

Andriana I Papaioannou et al. Respir Med.

Abstract

Combined pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema (CPFE) is a clinical entity characterized by the coexistence of upper lobe emphysema and lower lobe fibrosis. Patients with this condition experience severe dyspnea and impaired gas exchange with preserved lung volumes. The diagnosis of the CPFE syndrome is based on HRCT imaging, showing the coexistence of emphysema and pulmonary fibrosis both in varying extent and locations within the lung parenchyma. Individual genetic background seem to predispose to the development of the disease. The risk of the development of pulmonary hypertension in patients with CPFE is high and related to poor prognosis. CPFE patients also present a high risk of lung cancer. Mortality is significant in patients with CPFE and median survival is reported between 2.1 and 8.5 years. Currently, no specific recommendations are available regarding the management of patients with CPFE. In this review we provide information on the existing knowledge on CPFE regarding the pathophysiology, clinical manifestations, imaging, complications, possible therapeutic interventions and prognosis of the disease.

Keywords: Combined pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema; High resolution computed tomography; Pulmonary emphysema; Pulmonary fibrosis.

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