Objective: This study compared the efficacy and safety of initial combinations of empagliflozin + metformin with empagliflozin and metformin monotherapy in patients with type 2 diabetes.
Research design and methods: The study randomized 1,364 drug-naïve patients (HbA1c >7.5 to ≤12% [>58 to ≤108 mmol/mol]) for 24 weeks to empagliflozin 12.5 mg b.i.d. + metformin 1,000 mg b.i.d., empagliflozin 12.5 mg b.i.d. + metformin 500 mg b.i.d., empagliflozin 5 mg b.i.d + metformin 1,000 mg b.i.d., empagliflozin 5 mg b.i.d. + metformin 500 mg b.i.d., empagliflozin 25 mg q.d., empagliflozin 10 mg q.d., metformin 1,000 mg b.i.d., or metformin 500 mg b.i.d. The primary end point was change from baseline in HbA1c at week 24.
Results: At week 24, reductions in HbA1c (mean baseline 8.6-8.9% [70-73 mmol/mol]) were -1.9 to -2.1% with empagliflozin + metformin twice-daily regimens, -1.4% with both empagliflozin once-daily regimens, and -1.2 to -1.8% with metformin twice-daily regimens. Reductions in HbA1c were significantly greater with empagliflozin + metformin twice-daily regimens than with empagliflozin once-daily regimens (P < 0.001) and with metformin twice-daily regimens (P < 0.01). Reductions in weight at week 24 were significantly greater with empagliflozin + metformin twice-daily regimens (range -2.8 to -3.8 kg) than with metformin twice-daily regimens (-0.5 to -1.3 kg) (P < 0.001 for all). Adverse event (AE) rates were similar across groups (56.7-66.3%). No hypoglycemic AEs required assistance.
Conclusions: Initial combinations of empagliflozin + metformin for 24 weeks significantly reduced HbA1c versus empagliflozin once daily and metformin twice daily, without increased hypoglycemia, reduced weight versus metformin twice daily, and were well tolerated.
Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01719003.
© 2016 by the American Diabetes Association.