Interleukin-32 levels in gingival crevicular fluid and saliva of patients with chronic periodontitis after periodontal treatment

J Periodontal Res. 2017 Jun;52(3):397-407. doi: 10.1111/jre.12404. Epub 2016 Aug 8.

Abstract

Background and objective: The cytokine, interleukin (IL)-32, is a relatively new discovery. However, it is very powerful for stimulating tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) under inflammatory conditions. The objective of this research was to explore fluctuations in the levels of TNF-α, IL-32 and IL-10, in both saliva and gingival crevicular fluid. The focus was on measurements taken before and after clinical treatment of chronic periodontitis.

Material and methods: For the purposes of the study, a total of 27 patients with chronic periodontitis and 27 controls (periodontally healthy) were recruited. Important clinical periodontal criteria were established before and 4 wk after the start of the research. The chronic periodontitis group was given an initial form of periodontal care. Samples of saliva and gingival crevicular fluid were collected exactly 4 wk preceding and 4 wk following the care. The levels of IL-10, IL-32 and TNF-α present in saliva and gingival crevicular fluid were recorded via the use of an ELISA.

Results: At baseline, the levels of TNF-α and IL-32 in the gingival crevicular fluid and saliva were significantly higher among patients in the chronic periodontitis group than among patients in the control group (p < 0.05). On the other hand, at baseline the levels of IL-10 were significantly lower in the gingival crevicular fluid and saliva of the chronic periodontitis group than the control group (p < 0.05). A significantly positive link was found between the TNF-α and IL-32 levels in the two study groups (p < 0.05). After treatment, the levels of TNF-α and IL-32 in saliva and gingival crevicular fluid were significantly lower in the chronic periodontitis group when compared with the baseline readings. However, the levels of IL-10 were significantly higher (p < 0.05).

Conclusion: Ultimately, the level of IL-32 present in saliva and gingival crevicular fluid might be useful as an indicator of the condition and the expectations for its treatment and care. According to the results of the research, the proinflammatory impact of IL-32 could potentially be linked to the intensity and progression of periodontitis.

Keywords: gingival crevicular fluid; interleukin-32; periodontitis; saliva.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Case-Control Studies
  • Chronic Periodontitis / metabolism*
  • Chronic Periodontitis / therapy
  • Dental Plaque
  • Dental Scaling
  • Female
  • Gingival Crevicular Fluid / chemistry*
  • Humans
  • Interleukin-10 / analysis
  • Interleukins / analysis*
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Saliva / chemistry*
  • Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha / analysis

Substances

  • IL10 protein, human
  • IL32 protein, human
  • Interleukins
  • Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha
  • Interleukin-10

Associated data

  • GENBANK/NCT02632981