Antiangiogenic and antihepatocellular carcinoma activities of the Juniperus chinensis extract

BMC Complement Altern Med. 2016 Aug 8;16:277. doi: 10.1186/s12906-016-1250-6.


Background: To identify a novel therapeutic agent for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), for which no promising therapeutic agent exists, we screened a panel of plants and found that Juniperus chinensis exhibited potential antiangiogenic and anti-HCC activities. We further investigated the antiangiogenic and anti-HCC effects of the active ingredient of J. chinensis extract, CBT-143-S-F6F7, both in vitro and in vivo.

Methods: A tube formation assay conducted using human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) was first performed to identify the active ingredient of CBT-143-S-F6F7. A series of angiogenesis studies, including HUVEC migration, Matrigel plug, and chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assays, were then performed to confirm the effects of CBT-143-S-F6F7 on angiogenesis. The effects of CBT-143-S-F6F7 on tumor growth were investigated using a subcutaneous and orthotopic mouse model of HCC. In vitro studies were performed to investigate the effects of CBT-143-S-F6F7 on the cell cycle and apoptosis in HCC cells. Moreover, protein arrays for angiogenesis and apoptosis were used to discover biomarkers that may be influenced by CBT-143-S-F6F7. Finally, nuclear magnetic resonance analysis was conducted to identify the compounds of CBT-143-S-F6F7.

Results: CBT-143-S-F6F7 showed significantly antiangiogenic activity in various assays, including HUVEC tube formation and migration, CAM, and Matrigel plug assays. In in vivo studies, gavage with CBT-143-S-F6F7 significantly repressed subcutaneous Huh7 tumor growth in severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice, and prolonged the survival of orthotopic Huh7 tumor-bearing SCID mice (a 40 % increase in median survival duration compared with the vehicle-treated mice). Immunohistochemical staining of subcutaneous Huh7 tumors in CBT-143-S-F6F7-treated mice showed a significantly decrease in the cell cycle regulatory protein cyclin D1, cellular proliferation marker Ki-67, and endothelial marker CD31. CBT-143-S-F6F7 caused arrest of the G2/M phase and induced Huh7 cell apoptosis, possibly contributing to the inhibition of HCC tumors. Protein array analysis revealed that several angiogenic and antiapoptotic factors were suppressed in CBT-143-S-F6F7-treated Huh7 cells. Finally, five compounds from CBT-143-S-F6F7 were identified.

Conclusions: According to these results, we report for the first time the antiangiogenic and anti-HCC activities of CBT-143-S-F6F7, the active fractional extract of J. chinensis. We believe that CBT-143-S-F6F7 warrants further evaluation as a new anti-HCC drug.

Keywords: Antiangiogenesis; Hepatocellular carcinoma; Juniperus chinensis; Therapeutic agent.

MeSH terms

  • Angiogenesis Inhibitors / pharmacology*
  • Animals
  • Antineoplastic Agents / pharmacology*
  • Apoptosis / drug effects
  • Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / metabolism*
  • Cell Line
  • Female
  • Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells
  • Humans
  • Juniperus / chemistry*
  • Liver / drug effects
  • Liver Neoplasms / metabolism*
  • Mice
  • Mice, Inbred BALB C
  • Mice, SCID
  • Neovascularization, Pathologic / metabolism
  • Plant Extracts / pharmacology*


  • Angiogenesis Inhibitors
  • Antineoplastic Agents
  • Plant Extracts