Ballistocardiogram: Mechanism and Potential for Unobtrusive Cardiovascular Health Monitoring

Sci Rep. 2016 Aug 9:6:31297. doi: 10.1038/srep31297.


For more than a century, it has been known that the body recoils each time the heart ejects blood into the arteries. These subtle cardiogenic body movements have been measured with increasingly convenient ballistocardiography (BCG) instruments over the years. A typical BCG measurement shows several waves, most notably the "I", "J", and "K" waves. However, the mechanism for the genesis of these waves has remained elusive. We formulated a simple mathematical model of the BCG waveform. We showed that the model could predict the BCG waves as well as physiologic timings and amplitudes of the major waves. The validated model reveals that the principal mechanism for the genesis of the BCG waves is blood pressure gradients in the ascending and descending aorta. This new mechanistic insight may be exploited to allow BCG to realize its potential for unobtrusive monitoring and diagnosis of cardiovascular health and disease.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • Aorta / physiology
  • Aorta / physiopathology
  • Ballistocardiography / instrumentation*
  • Ballistocardiography / methods
  • Blood Pressure
  • Cardiovascular System*
  • Electrocardiography / instrumentation
  • Electrocardiography / methods
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Models, Theoretical
  • Monitoring, Physiologic / instrumentation*
  • Monitoring, Physiologic / methods
  • Movement
  • Reproducibility of Results
  • Signal Processing, Computer-Assisted