Frozen samples from 92 malignant astrocytomas were stained with a panel of monoclonal antibodies directed against macrophages and lymphocytes. A follow-up to death was available on 68 cases which form the basis of this study. Large numbers of macrophages were found in all cases; T lymphocytes, mostly of the CD8 phenotype were also seen in moderate numbers in 70% of cases. CD4-positive cells were present in small numbers in 32% and B cells were seen in only 8% of cases. Analysis of the survival showed no demonstrable correlation between the numbers of macrophages or CD4 lymphocytes and survival. The survival curves for parenchymal CD8 infiltration diverged after 9 months suggesting increased survival for those patients without such an infiltration but the difference failed to reach statistical significance (P = 0.37). No correlation between lymphocytic cuffing and survival was seen after studying all paraffin-embedded material. We conclude that there is no significant statistical correlation between survival and the various types of mononuclear cell infiltrating malignant astrocytomas.