Understanding the Correlates of Face-to-Face and Cyberbullying Victimization Among U.S. Adolescents: A Social-Ecological Analysis

Violence Vict. 2016;31(4):638-63. doi: 10.1891/0886-6708.VV-D-15-00014.


Using a national sample of 7,533 U.S. adolescents in grades 6-10, this study compares the social-ecological correlates of face-to-face and cyberbullying victimization. Results indicate that younger age, male sex, hours spent on social media, family socioeconomic status (SES; individual context), parental monitoring (family context), positive feelings about school, and perceived peer support in school (school context) were negatively associated with both forms of victimization. European American race, Hispanic/Latino race (individual), and family satisfaction (family context) were all significantly associated with less face-to-face victimization only, and school pressure (school context) was significantly associated with more face-to-face bullying. Peer groups accepted by parents (family context) were related to less cyberbullying victimization, and calling/texting friends were related to more cyberbullying victimization. Research and practice implications are discussed.

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adolescent Behavior / psychology*
  • Aggression / psychology*
  • Bullying / statistics & numerical data*
  • Crime Victims / psychology*
  • Crime Victims / statistics & numerical data
  • Family Relations
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Peer Group
  • Psychology, Adolescent
  • United States
  • Violence / prevention & control