Pinot noir wine volatile and anthocyanin composition under different levels of vine fruit zone leaf removal

Food Chem. 2017 Jan 1;214:736-744. doi: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2016.07.110. Epub 2016 Jul 19.


The impacts of fruit zone leaf removal on volatile and anthocyanin compositions of Pinot noir wine were investigated over two growing seasons. Wine volatiles were analyzed by multiple techniques, including headspace solid phase microextraction-GC-MS (HS-SPME-GC-MS), headspace-GC-FID (HS-GC-FID) and stir bar sorptive extraction-GC-MS (SBSE-GC-MS). Fruit zone leaf removal affected the concentration of many grape-derived volatile compounds such as terpene alcohols and C13-norisoprenoids in wine, although the degree of impact depended on the vintage year and severity of leaf removal. Fruit zone leaf removal resulted in greater concentrations of linalool, α-terpineol and β-damascenone but had no impact on other terpene alcohols or β-ionone. Fruit zone leaf removal had no consistent impact on C6 alcohols, volatile phenols, lactones, fermentation-derived alcohols, acids, or most esters. Fruit zone leaf removal increased anthocyanins in final wine.

Keywords: Anthocyanins; C(13)-norisoprenoids; HPLC-DAD; HS-GC-FID; Leaf removal; Pinot noir wine; SBSE-GC-MS; SPME-GC-MS; β-Damascenone.

MeSH terms

  • Agriculture / methods
  • Alcohols / analysis
  • Anthocyanins / analysis*
  • Cyclohexane Monoterpenes
  • Cyclohexenes / analysis
  • Food Analysis / methods
  • Fruit / chemistry
  • Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry
  • Hydrogen-Ion Concentration
  • Monoterpenes / analysis
  • Norisoprenoids / analysis
  • Oregon
  • Phenols / analysis
  • Plant Leaves / chemistry*
  • Solid Phase Microextraction
  • Temperature
  • Terpenes / analysis
  • Vitis / chemistry
  • Wine / analysis*


  • Alcohols
  • Anthocyanins
  • Cyclohexane Monoterpenes
  • Cyclohexenes
  • Monoterpenes
  • Norisoprenoids
  • Phenols
  • Terpenes
  • alpha-terpineol
  • beta-ionone
  • beta-damascenone