A retrospective review of 71 breech deliveries after previous cesarean was done to determine the need for repeat cesarean section. Twenty-four (33.8%) women were allocated to the elective repeat cesarean section group and forty-seven (66.2%) patients were allocated to a trial of labor group. Thirty-seven (78.7%) were delivered of their infants vaginally. A total of 37 of the 71 women (52.1%) had successful vaginal deliveries. Neonatal morbidity did not differ for women who were delivered vaginally or by cesarean section. Maternal febrile morbidity was significantly higher in the cesarean section group than in the vaginal delivery group (p less than 0.001). On the basis of these data, a trial of labor seems reasonable in carefully selected cases of breech presentation after a previous cesarean section.