Intravenous Gadoxetate Disodium Administration Reduces Breath-holding Capacity in the Hepatic Arterial Phase: A Multi-Center Randomized Placebo-controlled Trial

Radiology. 2017 Feb;282(2):361-368. doi: 10.1148/radiol.2016160482. Epub 2016 Aug 10.


Purpose To determine, in a multicenter double-blinded placebo-controlled trial, whether maximal hepatic arterial phase breath-holding duration is affected by gadoxetate disodium administration. Materials and Methods Institutional review board approval was obtained for this prospective multi-institutional HIPAA-compliant study; written informed consent was obtained from all subjects. At three sites, a total of 44 volunteers underwent a magnetic resonance (MR) imaging examination in which images were acquired before and dynamically after bolus injection of gadoxetate disodium, normal saline, and gadoterate meglumine, administered in random order in a single session. The technologist and volunteer were blinded to the agent. Arterial phase breath-holding duration was timed after each injection, and volunteers reported subjective symptoms. Heart rate (HR) and oxygen saturation were monitored. Images were independently analyzed for motion artifacts by three radiologists. Arterial phase breath-holding duration and motion artifacts after each agent were compared by using the Mann-Whitney U test and the McNemar test. Factors affecting the above outcomes were assessed by using a univariate, multivariable model. Results Arterial phase breath holds were shorter after gadoxetate disodium (mean, 32 seconds ± 19) than after saline (mean, 40 seconds ± 17; P < .001) or gadoterate meglumine (43 seconds ± 21, P < .001) administration. In 80% (35 of 44) of subjects, arterial phase breath holds were shorter after gadoxetate disodium than after both saline and gadoterate meglumine. Three (7%) of 44 volunteers had severe arterial phase motion artifacts after gadoxetate disodium administration, one (2%; P = .62) had them after gadoterate meglumine administration, and none (P = .25) had them after saline administration. HR and oxygen saturation changes were not significantly associated with contrast agent. Conclusion Maximal hepatic arterial phase breath-holding duration is reduced after gadoxetate disodium administration in healthy volunteers, and reduced breath-holding duration is associated with motion artifacts. © RSNA, 2016.

Publication types

  • Multicenter Study
  • Randomized Controlled Trial

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Breath Holding
  • Contrast Media / administration & dosage*
  • Contrast Media / pharmacokinetics*
  • Double-Blind Method
  • Female
  • Gadolinium DTPA / administration & dosage*
  • Gadolinium DTPA / pharmacokinetics*
  • Healthy Volunteers
  • Humans
  • Injections, Intravenous
  • Liver / blood supply
  • Liver / diagnostic imaging*
  • Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods*
  • Male
  • Meglumine / administration & dosage
  • Meglumine / pharmacokinetics
  • Organometallic Compounds / administration & dosage
  • Organometallic Compounds / pharmacokinetics
  • Prospective Studies


  • Contrast Media
  • Organometallic Compounds
  • gadolinium ethoxybenzyl DTPA
  • Meglumine
  • Gadolinium DTPA
  • gadoterate meglumine