Background: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a complex syndrome characterized by reproductive and metabolic implications. Lifestyle changes, such as diet and exercise, are considered first-line treatment for women affected by PCOS. Pharmacologic treatments target the hormonal and metabolic dysregulations associated to the disease such as insulin resistance, anovulation, hirsutism and menstrual irregularities.
Objective: To focus on the role of inositol isoforms, as well as Mediterranean and ketogenic diets, as possible therapeutic strategies in PCOS women.
Method: Narrative overview, synthesizing the findings of literature retrieved from searches of computerized databases.
Results: Accumulating evidence suggests that two inositol isoforms, myo- and D-chiro-, may play a pivotal role in re-addressing both hormonal and metabolic parameters toward homeostasis, counteracting the symptoms and signs typical of this syndrome. In addition, studies focused on Mediterranean and ketogenic diet provided positive results in patients affected by obesity and type 2 diabetes, so these dietetic regimens could represent a fascinating dietetic treatment for the management of PCOS.
Conclusion: Both the isoforms of inositol are effective in improving ovarian function and metabolism in patients with PCOS. In spite of accumulating evidence, it is currently not possible to draw firm conclusion(s) about the efficacy of these interventions considering the severe bias due to different samples size, dose, and duration of intervention among the published studies on this topic. Furthermore, future longitudinal cohort studies along with prospective interventional trials may contribute to better clarify the role of Mediterranean and ketogenic diets in the treatment of PCOS.