Correlation of Cadmium and Magnesium in the Blood and Serum Samples of Smokers and Non-Smokers Chronic Leukemia Patients

Biol Trace Elem Res. 2017 Mar;176(1):81-88. doi: 10.1007/s12011-016-0816-y. Epub 2016 Aug 11.


It was studied that cancer-causing processes are related with the disproportions of essential and toxic elements in body tissues and fluid. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the levels of magnesium (Mg) and cadmium (Cd) in serum and blood samples of smokers and nonsmokers who have chronic myeloid (CML) and lymphocytic (CLL) leukemia, age ranged 31-50 years. For comparative study, age-matched smokers and nonsmoker males were chosen as controls/referents. The levels of elements in patient were analyzed before any treatment by atomic absorption spectrophotometer, after microwave assisted acid digestion. The validation of the method was done by using certified reference materials of serum and blood samples. The resulted data indicated that the adult male smokers and nonsmokers have two- to fourfold higher levels of Cd in the blood and sera samples as compared to the referents (p < 0.01), whereas two- to threefold lower levels of Mg was found in blood and serum samples of both types of leukemia patients as related to referent values. The resulted data indicates significant negative correlation among Mg and Cd in leukemia patients and smoker referents. Further studies are needed to clarify the role of these elements in pathogenesis of chronic leukemia.

Keywords: Atomic absorption spectrophotometer; Biological samples; Cadmium; Chronic myeloid and lymphocytic leukemia; Magnesium; Smoker.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Cadmium / blood*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell / blood*
  • Leukemia, Myelogenous, Chronic, BCR-ABL Positive / blood*
  • Magnesium / blood*
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Risk Factors
  • Smoking / blood*
  • Spectrophotometry, Atomic


  • Cadmium
  • Magnesium