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Oncolytic Sendai Virus-Based Virotherapy for Cancer: Recent Advances


Oncolytic Sendai Virus-Based Virotherapy for Cancer: Recent Advances

Kotaro Saga et al. Oncolytic Virother.


Many drugs have been developed and optimized for the treatment of cancer; however, it is difficult to completely cure cancer with anticancer drugs alone. Therefore, the development of new therapeutic technologies, in addition to new anticancer drugs, is necessary for more effective oncotherapy. Oncolytic viruses are one potential new anticancer strategy. Various oncolytic viruses have been developed for safe and effective oncotherapy. Recently, Sendai virus-based oncotherapy has been reported by several groups, and attention has been drawn to its unique anticancer mechanisms, which are different from those of the conventional oncolytic viruses that kill cancer cells by cancer cell-selective replication. Here, we introduce Sendai virus-based virotherapy and its anticancer mechanisms.

Keywords: HVJ-E; anticancer immunity; apoptosis; cancer therapy; necroptosis.


Figure 1
Figure 1
Structure of Sendai virus. Abbreviation: HVJ, hemagglutinating virus of Japan.
Figure 2
Figure 2
Schematic representation of HVJ-E-mediated cancer cell death. Notes: (A) HVJ-E-mediated apoptosis signaling in cancer cells with CASP8. RNA fragments, which are introduced by HVJ-E membrane fusion, are recognized by RIG-I, and the signaling induces the transcription of TRAIL and Noxa by the activation of IRF7 and IRF3 via the RIG-I/MAVS pathway. TRAIL activates CASP8 via TRAIL receptor binding, and Noxa activates CASP9 via Cyt-C release from mitochondria. Activation of CASP8 and CASP9 results in cancer cell apoptosis via the subsequent activation of CASP3. (B) HVJ-E-mediated necroptosis signaling in cancer cells without CASP8. HVJ-E membrane fusion elevates the cytoplasmic Ca2+ level, and Ca2+ induces the phosphorylation of CaMK II. CaMK-II-P phosphorylates RIP1, and RIP1-P induces cancer cell necroptosis by elevating the levels of intracellular ROS. Abbreviations: CaMK-II-P, phosphorylated CaMK II; CASP, caspase; Cyt-C, cytochrome-C; HVJ-E, ultraviolet-irradiated hemagglutinating virus of Japan; RIP1-P, phosphorylated RIP1; ROS, reactive oxygen species; TRIAL, TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand.

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