Purpose: To evaluate the association of long-term prostaglandin analog (PGA) use with meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD) in medically treated glaucoma patients.
Materials and methods: This was a prospective cross-sectional study conducted at a single academic setting. In total, 70 eyes of 70 patients with a medical diagnosis of glaucoma who were on long-term (>12 mo) topical hypotensive medication(s) were included. Patients were classified based on whether they were on PGA or non-PGA class of medication(s). MGD was defined based on meibomian gland terminal duct obstruction and graded between 1 and 5 based on severity. For all subjects, ocular surface disease index questionnaire, break-up time, lissamine green staining, and Schirmer test (under topical anesthesia) was administered. Student t test, Mann-Whitney U test, and χ test was used in statistical evaluations. Forty-five age-matched healthy control subjects who were not on any topical medications were also included.
Results: In total, 25 patients (35.7%) were on PGA monotherapy, 21 (30.0%) were treated with fixed or unfixed PGA combination regimens, and 24 (34.3%) were on non-PGA medications. MGD prevalence was higher in patients treated with PGA monotherapy (92.0%) compared with those receiving non-PGA therapy (58.3%) (P=0.02). Obstructive type of MGD was detected in the majority of patients treated with PGAs (95.7%). Grade 2 and 3 MGD was noted in 80.5% of patients on PGA. Patients on PGA had worse ocular surface disease index and ocular surface test results (P<0.001) compared with those of control subjects.
Conclusions: Long-term administration of PGA is associated with obstructive type of MGD.