Background: A large number of human inherited and acquired diseases and phenotypes are caused by mutations in G protein-coupled receptors (GPCR). Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have shown that variations in the ADGRD1 (GPR133) locus are linked with differences in metabolism, human height and heart frequency. ADGRD1 is a Gs protein-coupled receptor belonging to the class of adhesion GPCRs.
Results: Analysis of more than 1000 sequenced human genomes revealed approximately 9000 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the human ADGRD1 as listed in public data bases. Approximately 2.4 % of these SNPs are located in exons resulting in 129 non-synonymous SNPs (nsSNPs) at 119 positions of ADGRD1. However, the functional relevance of those variants is unknown. In-depth characterization of these amino acid changes revealed several nsSNPs (A448D, Q600stop, C632fs [frame shift], A761E, N795K) causing full or partial loss of receptor function, while one nsSNP (F383S) significantly increased basal activity of ADGRD1.
Conclusion: Our results show that a broad spectrum of functionally relevant ADGRD1 variants is present in the human population which may cause clinically relevant phenotypes, while being compatible with life when heterozygous.
Keywords: ADGRD1; Adhesion GPCR; Database; GPR133; Mutations; SNP.