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Review
, 2016, 6940283

Stem Cells Applications in Regenerative Medicine and Disease Therapeutics

Affiliations
Review

Stem Cells Applications in Regenerative Medicine and Disease Therapeutics

Ranjeet Singh Mahla. Int J Cell Biol.

Abstract

Regenerative medicine, the most recent and emerging branch of medical science, deals with functional restoration of tissues or organs for the patient suffering from severe injuries or chronic disease. The spectacular progress in the field of stem cell research has laid the foundation for cell based therapies of disease which cannot be cured by conventional medicines. The indefinite self-renewal and potential to differentiate into other types of cells represent stem cells as frontiers of regenerative medicine. The transdifferentiating potential of stem cells varies with source and according to that regenerative applications also change. Advancements in gene editing and tissue engineering technology have endorsed the ex vivo remodelling of stem cells grown into 3D organoids and tissue structures for personalized applications. This review outlines the most recent advancement in transplantation and tissue engineering technologies of ESCs, TSPSCs, MSCs, UCSCs, BMSCs, and iPSCs in regenerative medicine. Additionally, this review also discusses stem cells regenerative application in wildlife conservation.

Figures

Figure 1
Figure 1
Promises of stem cells in regenerative medicine: the six classes of stem cells, that is, embryonic stem cells (ESCs), tissue specific progenitor stem cells (TSPSCs), mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), umbilical cord stem cells (UCSCs), bone marrow stem cells (BMSCs), and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), have many promises in regenerative medicine and disease therapeutics.
Figure 2
Figure 2
ESCs in regenerative medicine: ESCs, sourced from ICM of gastrula, have tremendous promises in regenerative medicine. These cells can differentiate into more than 200 types of cells representing three germ layers. With defined culture conditions, ESCs can be transformed into hepatocytes, retinal ganglion cells, chondrocytes, pancreatic progenitor cells, cone cells, cardiomyocytes, pacemaker cells, eggs, and sperms which can be used in regeneration of tissue and treatment of disease in tissue specific manner.
Figure 3
Figure 3
TSPSCs in regenerative medicine: tissue specific stem and progenitor cells have potential to differentiate into other cells of the tissue. Characteristically inner ear stem cells can be transformed into auditory hair cells, skin progenitors into vascular smooth muscle cells, mesoangioblasts into tibialis anterior muscles, and dental pulp stem cells into serotonin cells. The 3D-culture of TSPSCs in complex biomaterial gives rise to tissue organoids, such as pancreatic organoid from pancreatic progenitor, intestinal tissue organoids from intestinal progenitor cells, and fallopian tube organoids from fallopian tube epithelial cells. Transplantation of TSPSCs regenerates targets tissue such as regeneration of tibialis muscles from mesoangioblasts, cardiac tissue from AdSCs, and corneal tissue from limbal stem cells. Cell growth and transformation factors secreted by TSPSCs can change cells fate to become other types of cell, such that SSCs coculture with skin, prostate, and intestine mesenchyme transforms these cells from MSCs into epithelial cells fate.
Figure 4
Figure 4
MSCs in regenerative medicine: mesenchymal stem cells are CD73+, CD90+, CD105+, CD34, CD45, CD11b, CD14, CD19, and CD79a cells, also known as stromal cells. These bodily MSCs represented here do not account for MSCs of bone marrow and umbilical cord. Upon transplantation and transdifferentiation these bodily MSCs regenerate into cartilage, bones, and muscles tissue. Heart scar formed after heart attack and liver cirrhosis can be treated from MSCs. ECM coating provides the niche environment for MSCs to regenerate into hair follicle, stimulating hair growth.
Figure 5
Figure 5
UCSCs in regenerative medicine: umbilical cord, the readily available source of stem cells, has emerged as futuristic source for personalized stem cell therapy. Transplantation of UCSCs to Krabbe's disease patients regenerates myelin tissue and recovers neuroblastoma patients through restoring tissue homeostasis. The UCSCs organoids are readily available tissue source for treatment of neurodegenerative disease. Peritoneal fibrosis caused by long term dialysis, tendon tissue degeneration, and defective hyaline cartilage can be regenerated by UCSCs. Intravenous injection of UCSCs enables treatment of diabetes, spinal myelitis, systemic lupus erythematosus, Hodgkin's lymphoma, and congenital neuropathies. Cord blood stem cells banking avails long lasting source of stem cells for personalized therapy and regenerative medicine.
Figure 6
Figure 6
BMSCs in regenerative medicine: bone marrow, the soft sponge bone tissue that consisted of stromal, hematopoietic, and mesenchymal and progenitor stem cells, is responsible for blood formation. Even halo-HLA matched BMSCs can cure from disease and regenerate tissue. BMSCs can regenerate craniofacial tissue, brain tissue, diaphragm tissue, and liver tissue and restore erectile function and transdifferentiation monocytes. These multipotent stem cells can cure host from cancer and infection of HIV and HCV.
Figure 7
Figure 7
iPSCs in regenerative medicine: using the edge of iPSCs technology, skin fibroblasts and other adult tissues derived, terminally differentiated cells can be transformed into ESCs-like cells. It is possible that adult cells can be transformed into cells of distinct lineages bypassing the phase of pluripotency. The tissue specific defined culture can transform skin cells to become trophoblast, heart valve cells, photoreceptor cells, immune cells, melanocytes, and so forth. ECM complexation with iPSCs enables generation of tissue organoids for lung, kidney, brain, and other organs of the body. Similar to ESCs, iPSCs also can be transformed into cells representing three germ layers such as pacemaker cells and serotonin cells.
Figure 8
Figure 8
Stem cells in wildlife conservation: tissue biopsies obtained from dead and live wild animals can be either cryopreserved or transdifferentiated to other types of cells, through culture in defined culture medium or in vivo maturation. Stem cells and adult tissue derived iPSCs have great potential of regenerative medicine and disease therapeutics. Gonadal tissue procured from dead wild animals can be matured, ex vivo and in vivo for generation of sperm and egg, which can be used for assistive reproductive technology oriented captive breeding of wild animals or even for resurrection of wildlife.

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