Several metabolic alterations accumulate over time along with a reduction in biological fitness, suggesting the existence of a "metabolic clock" that controls aging. Multiple inborn defects in metabolic circuitries accelerate aging, whereas genetic loci linked to exceptional longevity influence metabolism. Each of the nine hallmarks of aging is connected to undesirable metabolic alterations. The main features of the "westernized" lifestyle, including hypercaloric nutrition and sedentariness, can accelerate aging as they have detrimental metabolic consequences. Conversely, lifespan-extending maneuvers including caloric restriction impose beneficial pleiotropic effects on metabolism. The introduction of strategies that promote metabolic fitness may extend healthspan in humans.
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