Depending on the tissue microenvironment, T cells can differentiate into highly diverse subsets expressing unique trafficking receptors and cytokines. Studies of human lymphocytes have primarily focused on a limited number of parameters in blood, representing an incomplete view of the human immune system. Here, we have utilized mass cytometry to simultaneously analyze T cell trafficking and functional markers across eight different human tissues, including blood, lymphoid, and non-lymphoid tissues. These data have revealed that combinatorial expression of trafficking receptors and cytokines better defines tissue specificity. Notably, we identified numerous T helper cell subsets with overlapping cytokine expression, but only specific cytokine combinations are secreted regardless of tissue type. This indicates that T cell lineages defined in mouse models cannot be clearly distinguished in humans. Overall, our data uncover a plethora of tissue immune signatures and provide a systemic map of how T cell phenotypes are altered throughout the human body.
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