Vitamin D 3 deficiency is associated with female sexual dysfunction in premenopausal women

Int Urol Nephrol. 2016 Nov;48(11):1789-1795. doi: 10.1007/s11255-016-1396-7. Epub 2016 Aug 13.


Purpose: To assess female sexual functions in women who were affected by vitamin D3 deficiency.

Methods: A total of 50 women with FSD and 58 healthy women controls were included in the study, according to the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) questionnaire using a 26.55 cutoff value. Detailed medical histories were obtained from all sexual active women, and all women were evaluated in terms of possible presence of depression with the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), prolactin, total and free testosterone, estradiol, dehydroepiandrosterone-SO4 (DHEA-SO4), sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), free thyroxine (fT4), and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels were measured.

Results: Mean age of premenopausal women was 34.9 ± 6.3 years. The level of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 was significantly lower in women with FSD compared with the controls (15.9 ± 8.4 and 26.3 ± 11.7 nmol/L, respectively). Desire (p = 0.0001), arousal (p = 0.0001), lubrication (p = 0.002), orgasm (p = 0.0001), satisfaction (p = 0.018), and pain (p = 0.010) domain scores were also correlated with the levels of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3. The BDI score showed a significant negative correlation with the total FSFI score (r = -0.492, p = 0.0001). The FSFI score not showed a significant correlation with the hormones (p > 0.05).

Conclusion: There is a relationship with FSD and deficiency of vitamin D3. Also, increased depressive symptoms were associated with FSD.

Keywords: Female sexual dysfunction; Female sexual function index; Vitamin D3; Vitamin D3 deficiency.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Arousal / physiology
  • Case-Control Studies
  • Cholecalciferol / deficiency*
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Dyspareunia / blood
  • Female
  • Hormones / blood*
  • Humans
  • Orgasm / physiology
  • Premenopause
  • Prospective Studies
  • Sex Hormone-Binding Globulin / metabolism
  • Sexual Dysfunction, Physiological / blood*
  • Sexual Dysfunction, Physiological / epidemiology*
  • Surveys and Questionnaires


  • Hormones
  • Sex Hormone-Binding Globulin
  • Cholecalciferol