Sphincter of Oddi disorder (SOD): Is it necessary to investigate and treat?

Trop Gastroenterol. 2015 Jul-Sep;36(3):145-55. doi: 10.7869/tg.276.


Sphincter of Oddi disorder (SOD) is a part of functional gastrointestinal disorder which is a non-calculous obstructive disorder. This disease is more common in middle-aged women with a prevalence of around 1.5% but in patients with post-cholecystectomy syndrome (PCS) the prevalence rate is markedly higher (9-55%). This high variability maybe attributed to lack of uniformity in patient selection criteria, definition of SOD, and the diagnostic method used. Abdominal pain is the most common symptom occurring due to obstruction at the SO leading to ductal hypertension, ischemia from spastic contraction and hypersensitivity of papilla. Clinical diagnosis of SOD can be achieved by Rome III criteria. Various classifications are used (Milwaukee billiary and modified Milwaukee group classification) for billiary and pancreatic SOD. Not a single non-invasive method is diagnostic. Sphincter of Oddimanometry (SOM) is the gold standard method for evaluating and deciding the management of an SOD patient. The symptomatic relief rate varies from 55% to 95%, so risk-benefit ratio should be evaluated with each patient.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Abdominal Pain / diagnosis
  • Common Bile Duct Diseases / diagnosis*
  • Common Bile Duct Diseases / epidemiology
  • Common Bile Duct Diseases / therapy*
  • Diagnosis, Differential
  • Humans
  • Postcholecystectomy Syndrome / diagnosis
  • Prevalence
  • Sphincter of Oddi / pathology*