Utilization of the Donnan potential induced by reverse salt flux in pressure retarded osmosis systems

Phys Chem Chem Phys. 2016 Sep 14;18(34):23469-73. doi: 10.1039/c6cp03939a. Epub 2016 Aug 15.


Pressure retarded osmosis (PRO) generates energy from salinity gradients. Reverse salt flux through a semi-permeable PRO membrane reduces the energy efficiency. We demonstrate for the first time the direct conversion of the reverse salt flux into electrochemical potential, recovering >7% positive net power using a single electrochemical PRO membrane.