Determination of endocrine-disrupting chemicals in human milk by dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction

Bioanalysis. 2016 Sep;8(17):1777-91. doi: 10.4155/bio-2016-0073. Epub 2016 Aug 15.


Aim: Human populations are widely exposed to numerous so-called endocrine-disrupting chemicals, exogenous compounds able to interfere with the endocrine system. This exposure has been associated with several health disorders. New analytical procedures are needed for biomonitoring these xenobiotics in human matrices. A quick and inexpensive methodological procedure, based on sample treatment by dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction, is proposed for the determination of bisphenols, parabens and benzophenones in samples.

Results: LOQs ranged from 0.4 to 0.7 ng ml(-1) and RSDs from 4.3 to 14.8%.

Conclusion: This methodology was satisfactorily applied in the simultaneous determination of a wide range of endocrine-disrupting chemicals in human milk samples and is suitable for application in biomonitoring studies.

Keywords: dispersive liquid–liquid microextraction; endocrine-disrupting chemicals; human milk.

Publication types

  • Validation Study

MeSH terms

  • Benzhydryl Compounds / analysis
  • Benzophenones / analysis
  • Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid / economics
  • Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid / methods
  • Endocrine Disruptors / analysis*
  • Food Contamination / analysis*
  • Humans
  • Limit of Detection
  • Liquid Phase Microextraction / economics
  • Liquid Phase Microextraction / methods*
  • Milk, Human / chemistry*
  • Parabens / analysis
  • Phenols / analysis
  • Tandem Mass Spectrometry / economics
  • Tandem Mass Spectrometry / methods


  • Benzhydryl Compounds
  • Benzophenones
  • Endocrine Disruptors
  • Parabens
  • Phenols
  • bisphenol A