Restriction spectrum imaging: An evolving imaging biomarker in prostate MRI

J Magn Reson Imaging. 2017 Feb;45(2):323-336. doi: 10.1002/jmri.25419. Epub 2016 Aug 16.


Restriction spectrum imaging (RSI) is a novel diffusion-weighted MRI technique that uses the mathematically distinct behavior of water diffusion in separable microscopic tissue compartments to highlight key aspects of the tissue microarchitecture with high conspicuity. RSI can be acquired in less than 5 min on modern scanners using a surface coil. Multiple field gradients and high b-values in combination with postprocessing techniques allow the simultaneous resolution of length-scale and geometric information, as well as compartmental and nuclear volume fraction filtering. RSI also uses a distortion correction technique and can thus be fused to high resolution T2-weighted images for detailed localization, which improves delineation of disease extension into critical anatomic structures. In this review, we discuss the acquisition, postprocessing, and interpretation of RSI for prostate MRI. We also summarize existing data demonstrating the applicability of RSI for prostate cancer detection, in vivo characterization, localization, and targeting.

Level of evidence: 5 J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2017;45:323-336.

Keywords: biomarker; diffusion-weighted imaging; prostate cancer; restriction spectrum imaging.

Publication types

  • Review
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

MeSH terms

  • Body Water / diagnostic imaging*
  • Diffusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods*
  • Evidence-Based Medicine
  • Humans
  • Image Enhancement / methods
  • Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted / methods*
  • Male
  • Prostatic Neoplasms / diagnostic imaging*
  • Prostatic Neoplasms / pathology*
  • Reproducibility of Results
  • Sensitivity and Specificity
  • Signal Processing, Computer-Assisted