Benefits of LixiLan, a Titratable Fixed-Ratio Combination of Insulin Glargine Plus Lixisenatide, Versus Insulin Glargine and Lixisenatide Monocomponents in Type 2 Diabetes Inadequately Controlled on Oral Agents: The LixiLan-O Randomized Trial

Diabetes Care. 2016 Nov;39(11):2026-2035. doi: 10.2337/dc16-0917. Epub 2016 Aug 15.


Objective: To evaluate efficacy and safety of LixiLan (iGlarLixi), a novel titratable fixed-ratio combination of insulin glargine (iGlar) and lixisenatide (Lixi), compared with both components, iGlar and Lixi, given separately in type 2 diabetes inadequately controlled on metformin with or without a second oral glucose-lowering drug.

Research design and methods: After a 4-week run-in to optimize metformin and stop other oral antidiabetic drugs, participants (N = 1,170, mean diabetes duration ∼8.8 years, BMI ∼31.7 kg/m2) were randomly assigned to open-label once-daily iGlarLixi or iGlar, both titrated to fasting plasma glucose <100 mg/dL (<5.6 mmol/L) up to a maximum insulin dose of 60 units/day, or to once-daily Lixi (20 μg/day) while continuing with metformin. The primary outcome was HbA1c change at 30 weeks.

Results: Greater reductions in HbA1c from baseline (8.1% [65 mmol/mol]) were achieved with iGlarLixi compared with iGlar and Lixi (-1.6%, -1.3%, -0.9%, respectively), reaching mean final HbA1c levels of 6.5% (48 mmol/mol) for iGlarLixi versus 6.8% (51 mmol/mol) and 7.3% (56 mmol/mol) for iGlar and Lixi, respectively (both P < 0.0001). More subjects reached target HbA1c <7% with iGlarLixi (74%) versus iGlar (59%) or Lixi (33%) (P < 0.0001 for all). Mean body weight decreased with iGlarLixi (-0.3 kg) and Lixi (-2.3 kg) and increased with iGlar (+1.1 kg, difference 1.4 kg, P < 0.0001). Documented symptomatic hypoglycemia (≤70 mg/dL) was similar with iGlarLixi and iGlar (1.4 and 1.2 events/patient-year) and lower with Lixi (0.3 events/patient-year). iGlarLixi improved postprandial glycemic control versus iGlar and demonstrated considerably fewer nausea (9.6%) and vomiting (3.2%) events than Lixi (24% and 6.4%, respectively).

Conclusions: iGlarLixi complemented iGlar and Lixi effects to achieve meaningful HbA1c reductions, close to near normoglycemia without increases in either hypoglycemia or weight, compared with iGlar, and had low gastrointestinal adverse effects compared with Lixi.

Trial registration: NCT02058147.

Publication types

  • Clinical Trial, Phase III
  • Multicenter Study
  • Randomized Controlled Trial

MeSH terms

  • Administration, Oral
  • Aged
  • Blood Glucose / metabolism
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / drug therapy*
  • Drug Combinations
  • Endpoint Determination
  • Female
  • Glycated Hemoglobin A / metabolism
  • Humans
  • Hypoglycemia / drug therapy
  • Hypoglycemic Agents / administration & dosage*
  • Hypoglycemic Agents / therapeutic use
  • Insulin Glargine / administration & dosage
  • Insulin Glargine / therapeutic use*
  • Male
  • Metformin / therapeutic use
  • Middle Aged
  • Peptides / administration & dosage
  • Peptides / therapeutic use*
  • Postprandial Period
  • Treatment Outcome


  • Blood Glucose
  • Drug Combinations
  • Glycated Hemoglobin A
  • Hypoglycemic Agents
  • Peptides
  • Insulin Glargine
  • lixisenatide
  • Metformin

Associated data