Hiv-2 molecular epidemiology

Infect Genet Evol. 2016 Dec;46:233-240. doi: 10.1016/j.meegid.2016.08.010. Epub 2016 Aug 12.

Abstract

The Simian Immunodeficiency Virus of sooty mangabeys (SIVsmm) has been revealed to be at the origin of Human Immunodeficiency Virus type 2 (HIV-2) in humans, firstly detected from two Portuguese patients in 1986. HIV-2 is mainly restricted to West Africa where it infects up to 1 to 2 million people. HIV-2 is also present in Europe, mainly Portugal and France, India and United States of America. Two major HIV-2 groups, groups A and B, were generated by two independent transmission events involving infected sooty mangabeys from the Taï forest in Ivory Coast. Seven other HIV-2 groups have been described, but each has only been identified in one patient. To date, no subtypes have been formally described but some preliminary data suggest that HIV-2 group A may be divided in two distinct subtypes with distinct geographical origins. To date only two recombinant forms have been described: one circulating recombinant form (CRF01_AB) and one unique recombinant form. In this review, we focused mainly on molecular data available and their insights about HIV-2 origins, diversity, drug resistance and global epidemiology.

Keywords: Epidemiology; Genetic diversity; HIV-2; West Africa.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Africa, Western / epidemiology
  • Genetic Variation
  • HIV Infections / epidemiology*
  • HIV Infections / virology*
  • HIV-2 / classification*
  • HIV-2 / genetics*
  • Humans
  • Molecular Epidemiology