The value of preoperative 3-dimensional over 2-dimensional valve analysis in predicting recurrent ischemic mitral regurgitation after mitral annuloplasty

J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2016 Sep;152(3):847-59. doi: 10.1016/j.jtcvs.2016.06.040. Epub 2016 Jun 29.


Objectives: Repair for ischemic mitral regurgitation with undersized annuloplasty is characterized by high recurrence rates. We sought to determine the value of pre-repair 3-dimensional echocardiography over 2-dimensional echocardiography in predicting recurrence at 6 months.

Methods: Intraoperative transesophageal 2-dimensional echocardiography and 3-dimensional echocardiography were performed in 50 patients undergoing undersized annuloplasty for ischemic mitral regurgitation. Two-dimensional echocardiography annular diameter and tethering parameters were measured in the apical 2- and 4-chamber views. A customized protocol was used to assess 3-dimensional annular geometry and regional leaflet tethering. Recurrence (grade ≥2) was assessed with 2-dimensional transthoracic echocardiography at 6 months.

Results: Preoperative 2- and 3-dimensional annular geometry were similar in all patients with ischemic mitral regurgitation. Preoperative 2- and 3-dimensional leaflet tethering were significantly higher in patients with recurrence (n = 13) when compared with patients without recurrence (n = 37). Multivariate logistic regression revealed preoperative 2-dimensional echocardiography posterior tethering angle as an independent predictor of recurrence with an optimal cutoff value of 32.0° (area under the curve, 0.81; 95% confidence interval, 0.68-0.95; P = .002) and preoperative 3-dimensional echocardiography P3 tethering angle as an independent predictor of recurrence with an optimal cutoff value of 29.9° (area under the curve, 0.92; 95% confidence interval, 0.84-1.00; P < .001). The predictive value of the 3-dimensional geometric multivariate model can be augmented by adding basal aneurysm/dyskinesis (area under the curve, 0.94; 95% confidence interval, 0.87-1.00; P < .001).

Conclusions: Preoperative 3-dimensional echocardiography P3 tethering angle is a stronger predictor of ischemic mitral regurgitation recurrence after annuloplasty than preoperative 2-dimensional echocardiography posterior tethering angle, which is highly influenced by viewing plane. In patients with a preoperative P3 tethering angle of 29.9° or larger (especially when combined with basal aneurysm/dyskinesis), chordal-sparing valve replacement should be strongly considered.

Keywords: echocardiography; ischemia; mitral regurgitation; mitral valve repair.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • Echocardiography*
  • Echocardiography, Three-Dimensional*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Mitral Valve Annuloplasty*
  • Mitral Valve Insufficiency / diagnostic imaging*
  • Mitral Valve Insufficiency / surgery*
  • Predictive Value of Tests
  • Preoperative Care
  • Recurrence