Incidence, Severity, and Association With Adverse Outcome of Hyponatremia in Children Hospitalized With Heart Failure

Am J Cardiol. 2016 Oct 1;118(7):1006-10. doi: 10.1016/j.amjcard.2016.07.014. Epub 2016 Jul 18.


Hyponatremia is a common finding in adults hospitalized with heart failure (HF) and is associated with longer hospital stays and increased mortality. The significance of hyponatremia in children with HF is not known. We sought to determine the incidence of hyponatremia and association with clinical outcome in children hospitalized with HF. Admission and inpatient serum sodium concentrations were analyzed in 141 consecutive children hospitalized with acute decompensated HF. Inclusion criteria include patients (age, birth to 21 years) with biventricular hearts who were hospitalized for HF from January 2007 to December 2012. The primary composite end point was death, cardiac transplantation, or the use of mechanical circulatory support (MCS) during hospitalization. Data for 141 patients were included in the analysis. The cohort included 48 patients (34%) with preexisting HF. Mean serum sodium at admission was 136 ± 4 mmol/L (range 124 to 150 mmol/L). Hyponatremia (serum sodium <135 mmol/L) was present in 45 patients (32%) at admission. Seventy-one patients (75%) with normal serum sodium concentrations at admission subsequently developed acquired hyponatremia during their hospitalization. Hyponatremia persisted at discharge in 17 of 66 patients (26%). Fifty-eight patients (41%) reached the composite end point during hospitalization (death, n = 15; cardiac transplantation, n = 27; MCS, n = 46). Hyponatremia at admission was independently associated with death, cardiac transplantation, or the use of MCS during hospitalization (odds ratio 3.1, p = 0.02). In conclusion, hyponatremia occurs commonly in children hospitalized with acute decompensated HF and is associated with increased risk of in-hospital mortality, cardiac transplantation, and need for MCS.

Publication types

  • Observational Study

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Child
  • Child, Preschool
  • Cohort Studies
  • Databases, Factual
  • Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation / statistics & numerical data*
  • Female
  • Heart Failure / epidemiology*
  • Heart Failure / mortality
  • Heart Failure / therapy
  • Heart Transplantation / statistics & numerical data*
  • Heart-Assist Devices / statistics & numerical data*
  • Hospitalization*
  • Hospitals, Pediatric
  • Humans
  • Hyponatremia / epidemiology*
  • Incidence
  • Infant
  • Infant, Newborn
  • Male
  • Mortality*
  • Odds Ratio
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Severity of Illness Index
  • Texas / epidemiology
  • Young Adult